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Guitar Recital: David Martinez

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David Martinez - Guitar Recital

Scarlatti Regondi Bach Aguada Sainz de la Maza De Lucia Tarrega

Domenico Scarlatti (1685-1757).

Sonata K 208

Sonata K 209

Sonata K 32

Sonata K 27Born in the same year as Handel and J. S. Bach,Domenico Scarlatti was a Neapolitan but settled in theIberian peninsula, first in Portugal and then in Spain,where the rhythms and sometimes the harmonies of theSpanish guitar strongly influenced many of the 555sonatas he wrote for the harpsichord. In binary form,they have nothing to do with the later classical sonataform, and often transcribe excellently for the guitar. Intheir original form they embody astonishing advances inkeyboard technique, scarcely possible for a singleguitarist (who needs two fingers to play a single note),but a considerable number of the sonatas benefitpositively from the wide expressive range that a guitarcan bring to them, and guitarists have not been slow torealise that potential. K 208 is an example, a melody thatmay be embellished with Baroque ornaments at theplayer's discretion, though at some risk of destroying thesublime simplicity of Scarlatti's inspiration. A certainamount of embellishment was necessary on theharpsichord, which is even more incapable than theguitar of playing a note with true sustaining power. Inthe contrasting liveliness of K 209, there is less need.

The arpeggio flourish that opens K 32 may remind youof the flamenco forms that are now so familiar. Not onlyin this sonata but in the following K 27, the guitar hashad an unmistakable influence on Scarlatti'scomposition. No wonder that guitarists regard his musicas a gold-mine.

Giulio Regondi (1822-1872)

Introduction et Caprice, Op. 23The Italian-born Regondi successfully survived earlyexploitation as a child prodigy, becoming much soughtafter, particularly in England, where he spent most of hisfifty years, as a virtuoso guitarist, a composer of sologuitar pieces in the best Romantic traditions of Chopinand Schumann, and, perhaps surprisingly, a master ofthe Wheatstone concertina, at that time a new invention,for which he composed many works.

Regondi's Introduction et Caprice for solo guitar istypical of his best work, its high romanticism echoingthe work of the great Romantic composers of the midnineteenthcentury yet at the same time speaking - orsinging - in Regondi's own individual voice, ardent,poetic, rhapsodic, and ideally suited to the voice of theguitar. Chopin and Schumann never thought of writingfor the guitar, but Regondi speaks the same musicallanguage and we can understand it and enjoy it inexactly the same way.

J. S. Bach (1685-1750)

Prelude, Fugue and Allegro BWV 998As with Scarlatti, Bach's works are known to guitariststhrough transcriptions. Nevertheless, some of his works- the so-called 'lute suites', for instance - are so lute-likein their musical essence and in their ability to be playedon the lute's modern fretted and plucked equivalent, theguitar, that it is difficult to believe that Bach did notwrite them directly for the lute. He possessed, however,a 'Lautenwerk', which was a keyboard instrument of thetime that used the plucking mechanism of a harpsichordbut was strung with gut instead of wire. This gave asound remarkably like the lute's, and it appears to havefascinated Bach, as well it might. It is more than likelythat these lute-like pieces were written for thisinstrument: Bach was a master of both harpsichord andorgan, but any skill he may have had with the lute is asyet undocumented. The three well-balanced movementsof the Prelude, Fugue and Allegro make it a perennialfavourite with guitarists.

Dionisio Aguado (1784-1849)

Andante and RondoThe Spanish composer Dionisio Aguado and his Catalancontemporary Fernando Sor could easily have becomerivals during their stay in Paris, but in fact they becameclose friends and even shared the same house. Theirmethods were different, both in playing and incomposition, Aguado playing with nails on his righthandfingers, Sor preferring to play without. With theirdifferent techniques, both players reached heights ofbrilliance.

In composition, Sor, who had a life-long love for,and understanding of the four-part harmony he had beentrained in at Montserrat, leaned towards the sonata formof his classical predecessors; Aguado, like hiscontemporary Nicol?? Paganini, often adopted a binaryform, as in this Andante and Rondo, in which a slowmovement was followed by a quick one. NeitherAguado nor Sor became complete Romantics, as themuch younger Regondi did, but both lived far enoughinto the Romantic age to be influenced by it.

Regino Sainz de la Maza (1896-1981)

4 Danzas Cervantinas (after Gaspar Sanz):




CanariosA leading guitarist, composer and teacher of his time,Regino Sainz de la Maza has also earned a mark inhistory by being the first performer of the most playedconcerto ever, Rodrigo's Concierto de Aranjuez.

Many of Sainz de la Maza's compositions areflamenco-based, but another passion was the Baroque,and the four Danzas Cervantinas constitute in effect ahomage to the great master of the Baroque guitar,Gaspar Sanz (1640-1710). The dances transfer well fromthe Baroque guitar to the modern classical guitar, oncethe six single strings of the modern guitar can bereconciled with the five double strings of the Baroqueinstrument.

Sainz de la Maza's rescue work was done before theEarly Music movement got into its stride, and themusical values of his time were unimpeded by questionsof authenticity.

Paco de Lucia (b.1947)

Fuente y Caudal (Tarantas)No flamenco guitarist has achieved more prominence inrecent years than Paco de Lucia. A formidabletechnique, a driving sense of rhythm and a genuinecreativity have set new standards in the world offlamenco. With so powerful a model, it was inevitablethat other areas of the plucked string instrument shouldtake notice, and classical guitarists were quick to seizeon the possibilities.

Fuente y Caudal (Fountain and Flow) is the title of ahighly successful Paco de Lucia album from 1973. Inthis deeply serious essay in the tarantas form, aneloquent and tragic melody and densely convolutedfiguration demand a technique of brilliance from theguitarist while offering the listener a true flamencoexperience. It should not be confused, but often is, withthe tarantos, a dance that shares a similar name and thesame harmonic progressions but nothing else.

Francisco Tarrega (1852-1909)

Recuerdos de la Alhambra

LagrimaTarrega was undoubtedly the dominant guitar figure ofthe late nineteenth century, not only a celebratedrecitalist but also a teacher responsible for manyinnovations, such as the Torres guitar (larger thanhitherto), posture and sitting position (though hisfamous footstool is now being challenged by numerousalternatives), finger action and much more. These,perhaps more than his highly romantic compositions,opened the door for the great masters of the twentiethcentury who followed.

As a composer, Tarrega was deeply influenced bySchumann and, particularly, Chopin, but also had afondness for arranging piano pieces by hiscontemporaries Albeniz and Granados, to the knownsatisfaction of Albeniz for one.

Recuerdos de la Alhambra must be the mostfrequently played piece ever written for the solo guitar.

Every student attempts it, but it remains surprisinglydifficult to bring off successfully.
Item number 8557808
Barcode 747313280827
Release date 01/08/2005
Category GUITAR
Label Naxos Records
Media type CD
Number of units 1
Artists David Martinez
Composers Dionisio Aguado
Domenico Scarlatti
Francisco Tarrega
Giulio Regondi
Paco de Lucia
Regino Sainz de la Maza
Disc: 1
1 Keyboard Sonata in A major, K.208/L.238/P.315: Ada
2 Keyboard Sonata in A major, K.209/L.428/P.209: All
3 Keyboard Sonata in D minor, K.32/L.423/P.14: Aria
4 Keyboard Sonata in B minor, K.27/L.449/P.83: Alleg
5 Introduction et Caprice, Op. 23
6 Prelude
7 Fugue
8 Allegro
9 Andante and Rondo No. 3
10 I. Folias
11 II. Espanoleta
12 III. Marizapalos
13 IV. Canarios
14 Fuente y Caudal (Fountain and Flow)
15 Recuerdos de la Alhambra
16 Lagrima
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