Piaves first suggested changes did not please Verdi. The King, Francis I, was to be a mere nobleman, the Duke of Ventignano, and there was to be no plot to kill him, while the murdered Gildas body was not to be hidden in a sack and Triboletto, the original of Rigoletto, was not to be an ugly hunchback. Negotiation with the censors followed, and something of Victor Hugo was restored. The villain was to be Vincenzo Gonzaga, referred to only as the Duke of Mantua, the deformity of the jester was permitted and there was no longer any objection to the sack. Censorship had caused delay and frustration, but by the end of December 1850 the matter was near enough to a settlement to allow Verdi to proceed with the composition in time for the carnival season.
Verdis problems were not only with the censors and, to some extent, with Piave. He also had serious reservations about the proposed prima donna, Signora Sanchioli, known, Verdi suggested, for her Michelangelo poses. The final cast had Teresa Brambilla as the first Gilda, a 38-year-old, one of seven sisters well known on the operatic stage. The French-Italian baritone Felice Varesi, who had created the title rôle in Verdis Macbeth, was the first Rigoletto, and the part of the Duke was taken by the tenor Raffaele Mirati. Varesis daughter later recalled her fathers doubts about the possible reaction of the audience to his appearance as a hunchbacked buffoon and how Verdi pushed him onto the stage at the first performance, causing him to stumble, but at the same time impressing the audience, enraptured by such a dramatically appropriate entrance.
Rigoletto, as the opera was now known, was an immediate success with the public, and was received equally well in Paris, where even Victor Hugo approved, and in 1853 in London. In Rome the censors had their revenge and Rigoletto now became Viscardello, a title and opera that Verdi disowned.
The 1950 recording at the ballroom of Manhattan Center in New York City cast the experienced Verdian singer Leonard Warren as Rigoletto. Warren had been born in New York in 1911 and made his stage début at the Metropolitan Opera in 1939 in Simon Boccanegra as Paolo. His career, largely centred on New York, ended only with his death on stage in 1960 during a performance of La forza del destino.
The present release also includes Verdi arias, with an excerpt from Simon Boccanegra, the last complete opera in which Warren sang at the Met, and from La forza del destino, both recorded in 1950. The part of Gilda is sung by a soprano particularly well known in the rôle, the fifty-year-old Erna Berger. Born in Dresden in 1900, her early career had been in Europe and she made her début at the Metropolitan Opera only in 1949, when she sang the part of Sophie in Der Rosenkavalier. She retired in 1955 and died in 1990. The American tenor Jan Peerce, born in New York in 1904 and engaged at the Metropolitan Opera from 1941, had sung his first complete Rigoletto as the Duke at his operatic début in Philadelphia in 1938, and had been engaged by Toscanini in 1944 for a recording of the last act of the opera, together with Leonard Warren and Nan Merriman. He continued at the Met until 1968, appeared on Broadway in Fiddler on the Roof in 1971, and died in New York in 1984. The American mezzo-soprano Nan Merriman, Maddalena in the present recording, represents a younger generation of American singers. Born in Pittsburgh in 1920, she had studied in Los Angeles and made her début as La Cieca in La Gioconda in Cincinatti in 1942. She enjoyed an international career that brought, among other successes, her appearance in Edinburgh in 1953 in the rôle of Baba the Turk in the first British performance of Stravinskys The Rakes Progress. She retired in 1965. The chorus used in the recording is the Robert Shaw Chorale, a group of some forty professional singers trained by the American conductor Robert Shaw, a musician particularly distinguished for his remarkable work with choirs. The RCA Victor Orchestra is directed, as on many other occasions, by Renato Cellini.
Act I, Scene I
1 Verdis Rigoletto has, as its central theme, the curse of a father on the father of the title. The theme associated with the curse is heard in the opening Prelude.
2 The first act opens with a ball at the court of the Duke of Mantua. A band is heard from the inner rooms of the palace. The Duke confides in Borsa, one of his courtiers, his plan to bring to a head his affair with an unknown girl, although he now has his eye on the Countess Ceprano.
3 He sees all pretty women as equally desirable. He draws aside the Countess, who was about to follow her husband. As they leave together, Rigoletto, the court jester, who has joined the company, mocks Count Ceprano, with the approval of the other courtiers. Rigoletto leaves the room.
4 The courtier Marullo enters with great news for his fellows: Rigoletto, the hunchback court jester that they all hate for his malicious wit, has a mistress, whom they plan to abduct. The jester abets his master in his exploits and now Ceprano too seeks revenge.
5 The scene ends with the curse uttered by Monterone, whose daughter has fallen victim to the Duke. Rigoletto mocks him, but the curse strikes home with him.
6 The scene changes to a blind alley in the city. On the left is a modest house, with a small walled courtyard. There is a door in the wall, leading to the street. A door in the first floor of the house gives onto a balcony above the wall, to which steps lead from below. On the right of the street is a very high garden wall and the side of Count Cepranos house. It is night. As he approaches his house, thinking of Monterones curse, Rigoletto is accosted by the ruffian Sparafucile, who offers his services as an assassin, if required.
7 As he goes, Rigoletto reflects on the meeting, since they are alike: Sparafuciles weapon is a dagger and Rigolettos his tongue.
8 In his garden, Rigoletto talks to his daughter Gilda, recently returned from her convent school, and remembers her dead mother.
9 He tells Giovanna, Gildas nurse, to guard her charge well. He opens the courtyard door and looks into the street, while the Duke, disguised as a student, is seen to offer Giovanna a bribe for her silence, as he steals in and hides in the garden.