The Art of the Baroque Trumpet Vol. 1 Virtuoso Trumpet Music
Telemann / Molter / Fasch / Leopold Mozart Torelli / Purcell / Handel
Few instruments have changed as much with time asthe trumpet. Before the introduction of valves in the earlier part of thenineteenth century, only the notes of the harmonic series were available, withwidely separated notes in the lower register and notes closer together in thehigher. The modern valve trumpet can play consecutive notes in the lowerregister and is shorter in length than the Baroque trumpet, the descriptivename now given to trumpets surviving from the seventeenth and eighteenthcenturies and modern copies.
The nature of the Baroque trumpet allowed theplaying of melodies with consecutive notes only from c" upwards and madeseverer technical demands on a performer. In addition to other problems, theharmonic series contains higher notes that are slightly out of tune and needcorrection. This means that the strength of breath must be carefully controlled.
The differences of technique between the earlierand modern trumpet mean that it is difficult for one player to have equalmastery of both. The introduction of finger-holes by Otto Steinkopf in 1960 hasmade correction of some notes easier, but the natural trumpet still remains ademanding instrument. The difficulty of the instrument is the probable reasonthat the works here included by Molter and Fasch are now recorded for the firsttime on natural trumpet.
The earliest use of the trumpet in concert ensembleseems to have been at the beginning of the seventeenth century in Germany and thenspecifically in church music. About 1630 the Italian player Girolamo Fantiniwrote sonatas for trumpet and for trumpet and basso continuo which he publishedin 1638 in his Modo per imparare a sonare di tromba. It was not,however, until about 1660 that the trumpet made an appearance in polyphonicinstrumental music, probably first in Vienna and a little later in the Moravian town of Kremsier (Kromeric) and in Dresden. In Bologna MaurizioCazzati published three sonatas for trumpet, strings and basso continuo in his Opus35, but regular composition of trumpet sonatas in Bologna began only in 1680.
Most compositions for one or more trumpets werewritten at this period in Kremsier and Bologna, where the two mostimportant composers were Vejvanovsky and Torelli respectively. Giuseppe Torelliand Tomaso Albinoni began to develop the solo concerto about 1690, a form latervaried and perfected by Vivaldi, but after 1710 relatively few trumpet concertiwere written by Italian composers, suggesting that the trumpet had by then lostits position as a Solo instrument, several trumpet concerti were written inGermany, however, until the beginning of the 1760s.
Georg Philipp Telemann, more respected in his daythan Bach, was employed in Harnburg for the greater part of his prolificcareer. On his death in 1767 he was succeeded as music director of the fivecity churches by his godson Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach. His Concerto fortrumpet, hvo violins and basso continuo has the traditional four-movementform of the Baroque church sonata, a slow movement leading to a fast, followedby a further slow movement and a fast final movement. In the first movement themelody is entrusted to the trumpet, with a more equable share of melodicmaterial in the second and fourth movements. A full manuscript score has beenhanded down to posterity by the collector J. S. Endler, who made a completecopy of it. O. Bill of the Hesse County and University Library suggests that the score wouldhave been written about 1720, when Endler was active in Leipzig, or at least beforehe moved to Darmstadt in 1723. In his ownfirst autobiography, written in 1718, Telemann says that he w rote severalconcerti during his stay at the court of Eisenach, from 1708 to 1712, butcontinued writing for Eisenach while he was employed at Frankfurt-am-Main andduring the first ten years of his residence in Harnburg. It might, therefore,be conjectured that the present concerto was written for Eisenach, as thestylistically similar Concerto for trumpet, two oboes and basso continuo. Thesoloist was almost certainly Nikolaus Schreck, who was ernployed at Eisenach between 1710 and1716 and after that until his death at Gotha, where he was described asconcert trumpeter. It would seem that Telernann's concerto is the first such compositionin Germany.
Johann Melchior Molter was born at Tiefenort,near Eisenach, in 1696 and enteredthe service of the Margrave of Baden-Durlach in Karlsruhe. The latter sent himto study in Venice and Rome, appointing himKapellmeister on his return in 1722. The disbanding of the orchestra in thedifficult years of the War of the Polish Succession led to Molter's appointmentas Kapellmeister at Eisenach. In 1753 he returned to Karlsruhe, where here-established a small orchestra and taught. His compositions include concertifor several instruments and some fort y of these are preserved, among them fiveconcerti for two trumpets written at Eisenach and three for single trumpetwritten about 1750. These latter are generally similar in form, with a homophonicstyle and simple, clear harmonies, in music that is in part imbued with energyand in part with strong feeling. The solo trumpet has a larger part in the firsttwo movements, while third movements are shorter, with shorter solo passages.
Technically the concerti are demanding and considerable sustaining power isneeded in the slow movements. These works were written for Carl Pfeiffer of theKarlsruhe court orchestra.
Johann Priedrich Pasch was born in 1688 atB??ttelstadt, near Weimar, and was trained at the Thomasschule in Leipzig under Kuhnau, later studyingwith Graupner and Gr??newald at Darmstadt. After various appointments, he became, in 1722,Kapellmeister in Zerbst, where he remained until his death in 1758. Pasch wrote music of all kinds, including a quantity of church music, much of which isnow lost. In common with some of his contemporaries, he began to move away fromBaroque style towards a pre-classical style of composition. In the concerto hestarts with the form developed by Vivaldi but develops a style of his own withless distinction between the solo and tutti parts. An example of this may beheard in his Concerto for trumpet, hvo oboes, strings and basso continuo. Comparedwith other music of the period from 1740 to 1745, the concertoshows some of thetraits of the newly developing style. It may have been composed for a trumpeterat the court of Zerbst or for a visiting performer.
A native of Augsburg, where he was bornin 1719, Leopold Mozart, father of Wolfgang Amadeus, was a prolific composer.
By 1757 he is said to have written a large quantity of church music, oratorios,theatre pieces, sinfonias, thirty large serenades and many concerti, the lastespecially for transverse flute, oboe, bassoon, French horn and trumpet. He wasemployed in the court orchestra in Salzburg from 1743, becoming courtcomposer in 1757 and assistant Kapellmeister in 1763. His Trumpet Concertoin D major dates from 1762. It has on I y two movements and isscored for trumpet, two horns and strings. The introductory movement, an Andante,starts with a main theme, an ornamented sca