MOZART: Basson Concerto / Oboe Concerto / Clarinet Concerto
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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756 - 1791)
Concerto in B Flat for Bassoon and Orchestra, K. 191
Concerto in C major for Oboe and Orchestra, K. 285d
Concerto in A major for Clarinet and Orchestra, K. 622
The life of Mozart has recently attracted considerableattention, his character distorted to suit modern dramatic requirements and hiscontemporary achievement thereby belittled. The reality seems to have been ratherdifferent. While he may never, as an adult, have achieved the material position that heand his father regarded as his due, he nevertheless won considerable success during thelast ten years of his life in Vienna, if never quite able to match the internationalacclaim that had greeted his appearance in the 1760s as a child prodigy.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born in Salzburg in 1756, the sonof a court musician, Leopald Mozart, who in 1756 had published an important book on violintechnique and who represented a new breed of musician in his breadth of interests and hisassociation with distinguished writers and intellectuals of the day. Neither Leopald norWolfgang Mozart were ever to regard themselves as mere craftsmen, whatever the socialexigencies of their profession.
In childhood Mozart and his elder sister, Nannerl, travelledwidely, performing prodigious musical feats to the amazement of audiences throughoutEurope. As an adolescent the harsher reality of life in Salzburg, under a much lesscongenial patron, Hieronymus Count von Colloredo, the new Archbishop, led to constantdissatisfaction. Opportunities in Salzburg were limited; there was no opera-house andprovincial society lacked the allure of Vienna. In 1777 Mozart secured his dismissal fromthe archiepiscopal service to seek his fortune in Mannheim and Paris, an abortiveexpedition, during the course of which his mother, who had accompanied him to France, fellill and died. The journey was a fateful one in that it brought Mozart into contact withthe Webers, to be jilted by the eldest daughter of the family, who found a more profitablematch. Later he was to marry a younger daughter, Constanze, a step that caused amazementto the Emperor, in view of the bride's lack of money, and consternation to Mozart's fatherfor equally compelling reasons.
By the time of his marriage Mozart has escaped from thedrudgery of Salzburg, where he had been re-employed on his return from Paris in 1778. In1781 he had accompanied the Archbishop of Salzburg to Vienna, where he had finally andirrevocably quarrelled with his patron, after finding himself prevented from making fulluse of his abilities in the capital.
The final decade of Mozart's life in Vienna brought variablefame and popularity. His operas were successful, in general, and his Singspiel, The MagicFlute, was drawing enthusiastic audiences in 1791, as the composer lay dying in suddenillness that has been the subject of considerable imaginative speculation by latergenerations.
Mozart wrote a number of piano concertos, principally for hisown use, violin concertos played in Salzburg, flute concertos on commission in Mannheimand horn concertos for his Salzburg friend Ignaz Leutgeb. Mozart wrote his only survivingbassoon concerto in Salzburg in 1774, possibly for Freiherr Thaddaeus von Duernitz, anenthusiastic amateur, for whom he later wrote a piano sonata, as well as three otherconcertos and a bassoon sonata. The concerto, again in three movements, makes splendid useof the solo instrument, with contrasts of register and the necessary elements of display.
Cmajor Oboe Concerto in Salzburg in the spring or summer of 1777, before hisautumn departure for Augsburg, designing it for the oboist Ferlendis, who had joined theArchbishop's musical establishment in April that year. In Mannheim, which he reached on30th October, Mozart met the oboist Friedrich Ramm, a member of the famous courtorchestra, and made him a present of the concerto. Ramm, as Mozart told his father, was delighted, and by February was performing it for thefifth time, now, in Mozart's words, his cheval de bataille Pressed for time in hissubsequent commission for the amateur flautist De Jean, he arranged the oboe concerto forflute Mozart mentions the oboe concerto once more in a letter to his father written on15th February 1783 from Vienna. Here he asks for the notebook containing the Ferlendisconcerto, since he has been offered three ducats for it by the oboist of Haydnsorchestra at Esterhaza, and twice that sum for a new concerto.
OboeConcerto is scored for two oboes, two horns and strings and has ail the clarityof texture that we should expect Alter the orchestral exposition the soloist enters with abrief scale. leading to a sustained high note and the first solo theme.
The slow movement in F major, offersthe oboe a sustained aria of great beauty and this is followed by a lively Rondo, intowhich the soloist leads the way.
His clarinet concerto in A major, K 622, was written for another friend, AntonStadler, who had settled in Vienna in 1773 to become, with his younger brother, JohannNepomuk, the first clarinettists to be employed by the Court Orchestra, in 1787.
Anton Stadler, who played secondclarinet in the orchestra, made technical changes in the instrument to allow a downwardex1ension and it was for this so-called basset clarinet and for this player that Mozartwrote his concerto a month or so before his death in 1791. The clarinet itself, derivedfrom the earlier single-reed chalumeau, had been developed from the beginning of theeighteenth century It was only towards the end of Mozart's life that it came to beaccepted as a permanent element of the orchestra rather than as an occasional and optionalsubstitute for the oboe.
He was born in Prague in 1959, the sonof conductor Martin Turnovsky. In 1958 he moved to Vienna with his father. From 1973 hestudied at the Vienna Hochschuie f??r Musik with Prof. Karl ?ûhlberger. In 1978 he joinedthe orchestra of the Vienna State Opera and the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra. Since 1985he is solo bassoonist of both orchestras At the same time, he is teaching "WindChamber Music" at the Hochschule f??r Musik in Vienna.
As soloist he has performed in radioproductions in Austria and internationally. As a member of the Vienna Blaserensemble andthe Neues Wiener Oktett he is extremely active in the field of chamber music. He also wasa member of the Concentus Musicus Vienna for many years.
He was born in Vienna in 1956 as a sonof musical parents After graduating from the Realgymnasium for Music Students in Vienna hereceived his diploma at the Vienna Musikhochschule with distinction. After an engagementas solo oboist with the Vienna Symphony Orchestra and with the Orchestra of the ViennaVolksoper he has been an oboist in the orchestra of the Vienna State Opera and of theVienna Philharmonic Orchestra since 1982. Since 1987 he has been a solo oboist of theVienna Phiiharmonic. He frequently performs as a soloist and in chamber music ensembles inVienna and inter nationally.
Ernst Ottensamer was born in 1955 atWallern in Upper Austria and studied the clarinet at the Bruckner Conservatory in Linz,before moving to Vienna Musikhochschuie, where he completed his studies in 1979. He firstplayed with the Vienna State Opera and Vienna Phiiharmonic Orchestra in 1978, beforebecoming a principal clarinettist in 1983 Since 1986 he has also been a member of theteaching staff of