Juan de Anchieta (1462-1523)
Missa Sine Nomine Salve regina
The second son of Martin Garcia de Anchieta and Urtayzaga deLoyola, who was a great-aunt of the future saint, Ignatius Loyola, founder ofthe Society of Jesus, members of a leading family in the Basque country, Juande Anchieta was born in 1462 near Azpeitia in Guip??zcoa in the Iraurgui valley.Although there is no information about his formative years, it is possible thathe served as a chorister in the chapel of Henry IV of Castile and perhapsstudied at Salamanca University, where Diego de Fermoselle, an elder brother ofJuan del Encina, taught. In 1489 he was appointed as a singer in the CourtChapel of Queen Isabella the Catholic, with a salary of 20,000 maravedis,increased in 1493 to 30,000 maravedis. In 1495 he was appointed maestro dicapilla to the Prince Don Juan. After the death of the Prince in 1497 hereturned to the service of the Queen, to be rewarded with benefices at thecathedral of Granada and of Villarino, travelling with the court, as required.In 1503 he was appointed rector of San Sebastian de Soreasu, a position he heldin absentia. After the death of Queen Isabella in 1504 he served her heir,Joanna the Mad. His position at court continued to involve a number ofjourneys, notably to Brussels in the service of Joanna the Mad and her husbandPhilip the Fair of Burgundy. His travel to Brussels was together with Pierre dela Rue, Alexander Agricola and Marbriano de Orto, singers in the Court Chapel.He spent the early months of 1506, from January to March, in England, where theroyal fleet was detained, on the voyage back to Spain. At the beginning of 1509he accompanied Queen Joanna to her refuge at Tordesillas, and remained with heruntil her abdication. Anchieta's salary under Queen Joanna between 1507 and1516 was 45,000 maravedis. In 1518 he was made Abbot of Arbas, succeeded at SanSebastian de Soreasu by his nephew, who was murdered shortly afterwards.Earlier years had brought family conflict when he was assaulted by two of theLoyola brothers. In 1519, at the wish of the Emperor Charles V, whom he hadpresumably served as tutor, Anchieta retired, retaining his salary. He wasallowed by papal dispensation to transfer his income from the benefice ofVillarino to a Franciscan convent that he established in Azpeitia, where hespent the rest of his life and where he hoped to be buried, although, at hisdeath in 1523, this did not happen.
Of Anchieta's compositions some thirty works survive, amongthem two complete Masses, two Magnificats, a Salve Regina, four attributedPassion settings, with other sacred works and four composition with Spanishtexts. Anchieta was among the leading Spanish composers of sacred music of histime. His writing is largely designed for the ample resources of the courtchapel of the Reyes Catholicos.
The composer Francisco de Penalosa, whose Sancta mater istudagas, once attributed to Josquin, is included between the Credo and theOffertorium, was held in even higher esteem than Anchieta, praised by his nearcontemporary, Cristobal de Villalon, as better than Apollo, the inventor ofmusic. He joined the royal chapel in 1498 and served as maestro di capilla to agrandson of King Ferdinand. With the death of the King in 1516 and theaccession of Charles V, with his own capilla flamenca, he left the Spanish court,serving briefly in Seville at the cathedral. In 1517 he became a member of thepapal chapel of Pope Leo X. On the latter's death in 1521 he returned toSeville, where he had intermittently held a disputed benefice in absentia overa number of years. He died there in 1528.
The organist Francisco Fernandez Palero, whose glosa(elaboration) of a Josquin Kyrie is included, served as organist at the royalchapel in Granada for some forty years. He died there in 1597. Juan de Urreda,perhaps of Flemish origin as Johannes Wreede of Bruges, served the first Dukeof Alba and is recorded in 1477 as Maestro di capilla to King Ferdinand V. Hiscompositions had wide currency, in particular his hymn Pange lingua, making useof the traditional Spanish Mozarabic melody. Antonio de Cabezon, the blindorganist and composer whose glosa on the Pange lingua is included, belongs to aslightly later generation. He was born about 1510 near Burgos and served asorganist to the wife of Charles V, Queen Isabella, and then of Philip II. Hedied in Madrid in 1566.
Anchieta's Missa Sine nomine, also called the Missa quartitoni, is here presented together with motets and pieces relevant to theliturgy, with the intention of evoking the sound of a liturgical ceremony ofthe period of the composer. All the pieces are dedicated to the Blessed Virgin,In honorem Beatae Mariae Virginis. The well-known melody of L'homme arme isused by Anchieta in the third voice of the Agnus Dei, and partly in the Kyrie,Sanctus and Benedictus of the Mass, while the principal theme of the Gloria isfrom Mass XV of the Graduale Romanum. His Salve Regina alternates Gregorianchant and polyphony in ten sections.